TYPES OF CYBERCRIME
Cyber-Crime ('computer crime') is any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. In a wider sense, 'computer - related crime' can be any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, however, this is not cyber-crime.
The Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Vienna, 10-17 April 2000) categorized five offenses as cyber-crime: unauthorized access, damage to computer data or programs, sabotage to hinder the functioning of a computer system or network, unauthorized interception of data to, from and within a system or network, and computer espionage.
The Cyber-Crime and Intellectual Property Theft program seeks to collect and disseminate data and research on six 'popular' categories of cyber-crime that directly impact citizens and consumers and to educate these groups on the scope and depth of the problem, as well as current policies and research aimed at addressing the issue.
The categories of cyber-crime addressed are:
Financial - crimes which disrupt businesses' ability to conduct 'e-commerce' (or electronic commerce).
Piracy - the act of copying copyrighted material. The personal computer and the Internet both offer new mediums for committing an 'old' crime. Online theft is defined as any type of 'piracy' that involves the use of the Internet to market or distribute creative works protected by copyright.
Hacking - the act of gaining unauthorized access to a computer system or network and in some cases making unauthorized use of this access. Hacking is also the act by which other forms of cyber-crime (e.g., fraud, terrorism, etc.) are committed.
Cyber-terrorism - the effect of acts of hacking designed to cause terror. Like conventional terrorism, `e-terrorism' is classified as such if the result of hacking is to cause violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear.
Online Pornography - According to 18 USC 2252 and 18 USC 2252A, possessing or distributing child pornography is against federal law and under 47 USC 223 distributing pornography of any form to a minor is illegal. The Internet is merely a new medium for this `old' crime, but how best to regulate this global medium of communication across international boundaries and age groups has sparked a great deal of controversy and debate.
In Schools - While the Internet can be a unique educational and recreational resource for children, it is important that they are educated about how to safely and responsibly use this powerful tool. The founding goal of this project is to encourage empowering children through knowledge of the law, their rights, and how best to prevent misuse of the Internet.